CONTENTS

In order of relevance

Introduction

My Study
My Regimen
My Story
My Theory
My Advice
My Diagnosis
My Opinions

Mental Attitude
Self Healing

Frequently Asked Questions
Useful Links

Antioxidants
Antiox Articles

OPCs
Vitamins
Minerals & Aminos
Medications 

Diet
Liver Function
Healthy Foods 

Stress
Inspiration
Therapies
Treatments
Theories

Articles
Mycoplasma
Lyme Disease
Organophosphates

Talking to Doctors
Diagnosing ALS
Self Assessment

Acknowledgements

Steven Shackel

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DIET
Dietary Methods to Assist in Maintaining Good Health
see also Healthy Foods
(ALS) Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis or (MND) Motor Neurone Disease 
are referred to as ALS/MND. 
PALS is short for People (or a person) with ALS.

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Beware!

For every paper recommending a particular diet
I have found another paper dramatically opposing it.

After more than 20 years research, what comprises a “Good Diet” for  PALS or a good diet in general has been the most contentious issue.

While researching dairy products I found one that claimed dairy products are essential for good health and another that screamed “Dairy products will kill us all!”. Are all dairy products the root of all western diseases? I no longer have a clue. My personal findings are that fermented milk products (yoghurt, cheese, etc.) are almost certainly beneficial to gut health and that good gut health may be the foundation of good general health. 

When I started researching more than 2 decades ago, there were NO diets specifically recommended for PALS: now there are several. Are these diets alone saving lives? There is little evidence to support this - so far. So I STILL cannot advise what you should be eating!

My diet did not change throughout my ten year clinical study. It was closer to the Glycemic Index Diet than any other, but not identical. Some common sense dietary approaches are presented below.


ABOUT THE GUT
Leading nutritionist Ben Warren specialises in treating people for numerous diet-related conditions. He claims, “it’s the number one thing we have to fix first. Most illness starts with gut health.”
The gut is where food gets broken down into base nutrients that rebuild our cells – so it’s the primary system where “the food becomes us”.
Up to 70 per cent of our immune system is centred in and around the intestines and our gut.
“It’s essentially the home of our immune system,” he says. “The easiest way to get a pathogen into your body, apart from stabbing yourself, is to eat it. Our   immune system is constantly looking at what we’re eating and trying to decipher whether it’s food, or a virus or bacteria that’s going to kill us”. 
“So much of our immune   system is centred around our gut. Obviously we know that the immune system is incredibly   important   to health, but it’s also heavily related to many immune dysfunctions generally related to modern disease.”
See: The MindFood website.

Sluggish digestion, excess or insufficiency of certain foods 
may stress, slow or otherwise impair your liver and 
the function of other essential metabolic processes. 
Here are some common sense dietary rules-of-thumb that should 
help maintain healthy liver and metabolic function, improve digestion and aid in the excretion of potentially harmful toxins. 

Listen to your body!
On waking in the morning, drink two glasses of water. Drink eight to twelve glasses of clean water per day (approximately 4 litres/8 pints) to assist in cleansing/flushing the kidneys and liver and keep cells hydrated. Drink water throughout the day but do not drink a lot with meals.
Do not eat if you are not hungry - but do not put up with hunger pangs.
Do not eat sugar - especially refined sugars. The liver turns these into fat. Artificial sweeteners (e.g. aspartame) used in "diet" foods and drinks impair liver function and may be toxic. If you need a sweet snack, eat fresh or dried fruit, honey or molasses. Fruit canned in its own juice (not sugar syrup) may be a viable alternative to fresh fruit.
Adopt good intestinal hygiene habits because the liver filters viruses and bacteria in food. Eat fresh food, preferably organically grown fruit, vegetables and free range foods (e.g. eggs and poultry) if available. These minimise your intake of pesticides, growth-hormones, antibiotics and saturated fats. 
Do not reheat food more than once. 
Avoid preserved meats of all types. 
Always wash your hands before eating.
Avoid foods you may be allergic to or you find difficult to digest (you may need to keep a record to establish which foods seem to cause problems. That’s what I did). 
If your digestion is weak, poor or sluggish you may try digestive enzyme tablets before meals or include a yoghurt that contains bifidus and acidophilus in your daily diet. Try to start a meal with some raw fruit or vegetables.
Minimise your coffee, tea and alcohol consumption. Gradually cut down to one cup/glass a day or better still cut them out completely. If you drink tea, note that adding milk tends to reduce the antioxidant benefits of the tea. (I drink black or green tea without sugar or milk).
Avoid eating when stressed or anxious. When you are stressed, blood is diverted away from the intestines and liver. This can lead to bloating and poor digestion.
Avoid artificial flavourings, colouring, preservatives & sweeteners.
Eat red meat in moderation, say no more than 4 ounces per serve (as in an average hamburger patty). As well as proteins derived from meat, eggs and fish include more proteins derived from grains, nuts, seeds and legumes.
Try to minimise butter and margarine in your diet. Eat good quality, high fibre multi grain bread rather than "brown" bread, which is often simply white bread with added food colouring.
Do not eat excessive saturated or damaged fats. There are good and bad fats. Margarine, hydrogenated oils, shortening, fried foods, packaged cookies/biscuits, potato chips/crisps and the like should be avoided. Use unrefined, cold pressed oils for cooking (e.g. virgin olive oil) and keep them refrigerated and out of direct light.
Eat fibre rich foods such as raw fruits and vegetables; bran or breakfast cereals containing bran; high fibre breads and so on. Combined with adequate water intake this will help prevent constipation, aid digestion and consequent excessive "fermentation" of food in the gut.
Increase the quantity of raw food in your diet to around 40%. Eat a light breakfast that includes raw fruits and wholegrain cereals with a little milk. 
Fresh whole vegetable juices are good. Avoid clear “juices”. 
include a salad as part of your main meals of the day (lunch and dinner). Snack on fruits, carrot, celery, Brazil nuts, raw cashews, almonds, seeds, dried fruit and the like.
Drink (preferably water) as soon as you feel thirsty. Eat only when you feel hungry. 
Avoid stress and/or use a relaxation/meditation technique to control stress levels.
Start a meal with a "bitter" food, when possible, such as those found in Mediterranean style "ante pasta" (olives and bitter salad greens particularly). "Bitter Principles" (not sour like lemons or vinegar) stimulate the bitter-sensitive taste buds that are connected neurally to the gut wall and promote the secretion of beneficial gastrin.
Gastrin is a hormone that aids the digestive process on many levels. If you do not like olives and similar foods, "bitters" and bitter tinctures can be obtained from health food shops, naturopaths and herbalists and taken with a small amount of water before meals.
Get tested for food allergies.

See Dr David Steenblock's extensive website Note his recommendations and theories of how diet may influence ALS/MND.


SOME DIETARY BOOKS
After many years of studying diet and its possible affects on the progress of neurodegeneration only one book has stood out as sensible, scientifically sound, easy to read and has recommendations that are easy to follow. Dietary suggestions are very similar to the diet I followed.

The New Glucose Revolution
Subtitle: The Glycemic Index Solution for Optimum Health.
Authors Prof Jennie Brand- Miller, Kaye Foster-Powell, Assoc Prof Stephen Colagiuri.
Publisher: Hodder. ISBN 0-7336-1500-7. 

For information about the Gylcemic Index Diet 
also see information about type 2 diabetes

Link to excellent site for food and dietary information



"The Liver Cleansing Diet"  by Dr Sandra Cabot explains the role of the liver and offers suggestions and even diet menus to assist in improving liver function. For more information

Although marketed as a diet book, it explains liver function clearly and simply and presents a compelling argument supporting the need to improve and maintain good liver function. I discovered too late that most of the fundamental information I struggled to assemble for this page is included in The Liver Cleansing Diet.

"Food from Friends” is a feel-good book - like a warm hug. The recipes are inspirational, achievable, delicious and inventive.” (Kate Fraser) 

Everything in this book has been donated, from the recipes, the photography, book design and layout. This is a great gift idea and each purchase will support a worthy ALS/MND cause.
 
Order Food From Friends


Apples, not caffeine, are more efficient 
at waking you up in the morning. 

Some Further Notes on Diet
Diet is such an incredibly complex and ever evolving topic that I present only a fraction of the information I have researched.

It is likely that highly processed carbohydrates, particularly refined sugar as added to coffee, tea, sodas, breakfast cereals, deserts, candies, cookies, cakes, chocolate and so on, could "short circuit" the process of complex-carbohydrate metabolisation.
The body grabs the easily-accessed refined sugar and interferes with or even blocks the metabolisation of more complete sugars derived from complex carbohydrates.
The poorly metabolised carbohydrates may then place and extra load on the liver, further disrupting the metabolic process. In the long term, this could cause free radical production, beneficial cell sugar depletion and a negative domino effect in the digestive and central nervous systems.
Dr Dharma Khalsa, President Alzheimer's Foundation, states that "Fat promotes brain deterioration much as it wreaks havoc with the heart and arteries.  It clogs the vessels that carry oxygen and glucose - the brain's fuel - to millions of neurones and produce free radicals, the highly reactive and destructive chemicals that scar and kill brain cells. 
Keep your fat intake below 20% of total calories". [This may be more complicated than it first appears after you have read further].
For 15 years experts advised that we should eat less fat and more carbohydrates. Data analysis during those 15 years shows while the dietary intake of saturated fats and cholesterol decreased, obesity in western countries has increased. Apparently the experts were not clear about how fats/lipids are metabolised.
Eating fat does not make you fat
Your body's response to excess carbohydrates is to converts them into body fat. Low-calorie, high-carbohydrate diets generate biochemical signals in your body that make it difficult to access stored body fat.
The ratio of macronutrients (protein, carbohydrate and fat) in meals is the key to weight management and optimal health.  When you eat these macronutrients, they generate complex hormonal responses that determine how much body fat you store. Knowing how to control these responses is important.
The body requires a continual intake of carbohydrates to feed the brain, which uses glucose (a sugar derived from carbohydrates) as its primary energy source. Any carbohydrates not immediately used by the body will be stored as glycogen (a string of linked glucose molecules).  The body stores glycogen in the liver and the muscles. 
Only the glycogen stored in the liver can be broken down and returned to the bloodstream to maintain blood sugar levels for adequate brain function.
Whether it's in the liver or the muscles, the body's carbohydrate storage capacity is limited.  It is difficult to metabolise carbohydrates stored in muscles.  In the liver, carbohydrates are accessible for glucose conversion but we can store only 60-90g, the equivalent to about two cups of cooked pasta. This represents your total reserve to keep the brain working properly.  Once glycogen levels are filled in both the liver and the muscles, excess carbohydrates are converted into stored fat.
Volunteers on a diet low in calories (1000 calories) but high in fat (90 percent of total calories) metabolised significant amounts of stored body fat. The same volunteers on a high carbohydrate diet (90 per cent of the calories as carbohydrate) lost  virtually no body fat (therefore failing to metabolise it).
Optimal health is based on an understanding of the complex hormonal responses generated when you eat. Food is a control system for hormones.
The hormonal composition of each meal will determine the energy source available for the next four to six hours.  With the correct hormonal balance you can tap into energy stored as body fat.  The wrong balance will utilise limited, poor quality, stored carbohydrates.
The correct hormonal trigger is in the insulin-glucagon axis.  Insulin is a storage hormone that takes excess glucose from dietary carbohydrates and excess stores of amino acids from dietary protein and stores them in adipose tissues as fat and locks it up so it can't be released.
Glucagon is insulin's biological opposite - a mobilisation hormone. Its primary job is to release stored carbohydrates in the form of glucose from the liver. The release of insulin is stimulated by carbohydrates, especially high-glycemic carbohydrates such as bread and pasta.  Glucagon production is stimulated by dietary protein.
The hormonal balance of insulin and glucagon depends on the size of the meal you eat and its ratio of protein to carbohydrate - excess calories stimulate secretion of insulin.
Eat small meals with a ratio of protein to carbohydrate of 1-3gm protein to every 4gm carbohydrate.
You should eat a little more carbohydrate than protein and always include some "healthy" fat (some listed below).  Fats supply the building block for essential hormones and function as a control mechanism, like fibre, to slow the entry rate of carbohydrates into the bloodstream. Fats also make food taste good and activate the hormone cholecystokinin, which tells the brain you're satisfied, and to stop eating.
Fats are vital for hormone production, reducing unhealthy, excess body fat and promoting good health.
A particularly bad fat is arachidonic acid, found in egg yolks, offal, most delicatessen meats and fatty red meat.  Restrict or eliminate these from your diet. Saturated fats, found in animal protein sources and in whole-fat dairy products should be kept to a minimum as they tend to raise insulin levels. Favour animal protein sources low in saturated fat, such as white meat, poultry and fish.
Most of the good fats are monounsaturated like those found in olive oil, canola oil, olives, macadamia nuts and avocados.  They have no effect on insulin levels.
Main text sourced from "Enter the Zone", by Barry Sears, PhD with Bill Lawren, Harper Collins.

See also information on Chromium on my Minerals and Amino’s Page

Magnesium is important for neuro-muscular function and the utilization of calcium in the body. Calcium cannot be absorbed properly without vitamin D but vitamin D is toxic in large amounts and should only be taken under medical supervision.  Vitamin D is almost completely lacking in food, apart from fish-liver oils (although margarine is usually supplemented with vitamin D).
Our chief source of vitamin D comes from sunlight on our bare skin producing a substance that changes into vitamin D within the body.  Some PALS find that Calcium and/or Magnesium supplementation worsens fasciculations and cramping.  Supplements of all types should only be taken in conjunction with a healthy diet and other supplements to facilitate their metabolisation. See Possible Medications.

Simply ingesting protein will not increase muscle bulk or replace muscle lost due to denervation. Exercise is required to metabolise protein in a way that builds muscle tissue. Too much protein can be as harmful as too little.  It can cause calcium to be flushed from the body in urine.
The loss of calcium is greater with high protein foods rich in phosphorus, such as meat and eggs.  According to Dr Julian Whitaker, a contributor to Prevention magazine, excess nitrogen and sulphur in the blood from a high protein diet creates an acid condition that leaches calcium from bone. 
The combined effect that the body loses more calcium than it takes in, so using calcium supplements may not help when you are eating excess protein.  Osteoporosis, the gradual deterioration of the bones is rare in countries where the diet is low in protein - even when calcium intake is relatively low. People wishing to lose weight sometimes adopt a high protein, low carbohydrate diet. Dietary protein alone will not maintain the protein tissues of your body.
Without carbohydrates the body cannot use the proteins that are ingested. Carbohydrates spare protein and increase protein utilization. Attempt to eat only unrefined carbohydrates.

AN ELIMINATION DIET
If you suffer from any serious medical disorder, including cancer, diabetes, depression, eating disorders, severe asthma or epilepsy, it is not advisable to undertake an elimination diet without medical supervision.
The idea of this diet is to eat only things to which you are unlikely to be allergic. That may take a lot of willpower and support! Follow it for two weeks to give your system time to eliminate any offending food allergens.
When following this diet plan, you may experience symptoms of withdrawal and detoxification (such as nausea, headache, the feeling that your teeth and tongue have a furry coat, and even diarrhoea), but these symptoms should diminish after a couple of days, leaving you feeling fresher and more alert. 
Eat and drink water or mild herbal tea every two to three hours. Keep a record of everything you consume and note any reaction you experience. Avoid using toothpaste during the diet - use salt or baking powder instead.
This 2 week diet may help newly diagnosed or slow onset PALS.
Most so-called "Detox" diets are far too extreme for people with chronic illnesses but this diet may help identify possible food intolerances
DAY ONE
Cut out all stimulants (tea, coffee, chocolate, cigarettes, alcohol), processed "convenience" foods and foods containing additives.
DAY TWO
Cut out all dairy products, wheat, buckwheat and sugar, including honey and syrups, and any foods containing these.

DAY THREE
Cut out all meat, fish and shellfish.
DAY FOUR
Cut out all corn, nuts and pulses, and foods containing these.
DAY FIVE
Cut out all foods belonging to the nightshade family (Solanum): potato, aubergine, peppers, chillies, cayenne, paprika and tomatoes. Eat only steamed or raw vegetables, rice and fruit.
DAY SIX
Cut out all citrus fruits (lemon, orange, grapefruit, lime, tangerine, mandarin, clementine). Eat only vegetables and those fruits not belonging to the citrus and nightshade families.

DAY SEVEN
Drink only water, fruit and/or vegetable juices. Make your own mixtures according to taste.
DAY EIGHT
Eat vegetables and fruits, except citrus fruits and members of the nightshade family.
DAY NINE
Eat vegetables, fruits and rice. Drink water and juices. Re-introduce foods from the nightshade family. Observe any reaction.
DAY TEN
Eat vegetables, fruits and rice. Drink water and juices as on day seven. Re-introduce citrus fruits. Observe any reaction.
DAY ELEVEN
Eat vegetables, fruits and rice. Drink water and juices as on day seven. Re-introduce corn, nuts and pulses. Observe any reaction.
DAY TWELVE
Eat vegetables, fruits and rice. Drink water and juices as on day seven. Re-introduce wheat, sugar and fish. Observe reactions.
DAY THIRTEEN
Eat vegetables, fruits and rice. Drink water and juices as on day seven. Re-introduce dairy products, Observe reactions.
DAY FOURTEEN
Eat vegetables, fruits and rice. Drink water and juices as on day seven. Re-introduce shellfish. Observe any reactions.
Vegetables and fruits will form the basis of your diet.

Start eating "normally" again, but note your reactions carefully when you reintroduce meat, stimulants and food additives.

Review your diet diary and take note of the food groups to which you reacted negatively.

Now you will be able to base your future eating patterns on what you have discovered.


High Polyunsaturated Fat And Vitamin E Intake May Halve Motor Neurone Disease Risk. A high dietary intake of polyunsaturated fat and vitamin E seems to halve the risk of developing motor neurone disease, suggests research (Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry). 

Polyunsaturated fats include omega 3 found in certain vegetable oils and omega 6, found in fish and green leafy vegetables. Environmental factors and diet have been previously implicated in its development. 132 patients with potential or definite ALS/MND completed a questionnaire, detailing their regular diet before they became ill. 

The results were compared with those of 220 healthy people and adjusted to take account of age, sex, energy intake, weight and smoking. Total energy intake and consumption of dietary supplements were the same in both groups, but intake of total fats differed. The patients with ALS consumed significantly less PUFA and vitamin E than their healthy peers. 

The highest daily intake of PUFA of more than 32g was associated with a 60% lower risk of developing ALS compared with the lowest daily intake of less than 25g. Similarly, a daily vitamin E intake of between 18 and 22 mg was associated with a 60% lower risk of developing ALS compared with the lowest daily intake of less than 18 mg. 

PUFA and vitamin E seemed to work synergistically and the results held true even after taking account of other influential factors. No strong associations were found for any of the other nutrients.

Alcohol disrupts the body's ability to control blood sugar levels. This causes hunger (in an attempt to replenish blood sugar) but the liver is unable to adjust blood sugar adequately.

Mediterranean Diet Components Protect Against ALS
this study suggests that diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (such as those found in fish, flax seeds, olives and walnuts), and in vitamin E (found in fruits and green leafy vegetables) appear to work together to reduce the risk of the neurodegenerative disease ALS.
By Neil Osterweil, Senior Associate Editor, Reviewed by Zalman S. Agus, MD; Emeritus Professor at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine.

CUT OUT REFINED SUGAR
Contributed by Ron White
After 20 years of counseling PALS, I believe one of the most simple, effective things PALS can do to slow progression of symptoms and maintain quality of life is to eliminate sugar from the diet. This includes sodas, desserts, ice cream, sweets, white bread, alcohol (which is essentially liquid sugar), sweetened or artificially sweetened juices.

How many of you have read, "Began slurring words after only one drink" or "Had difficulty swallowing after only three sips of wine" or "Got tremendously weak, slurring words, and had to be helped out of restaurant after only one drink"?
I recommend you consume only natural sugars from fruits, vegetables, and naturally sweetened juices. [Substituting artificial sweeteners for natural sugars is not recommended. See World Natural Health Organization and click on aspartame. Look for the paper by Dr. Russell Blaylock. "What To Do If You Have Used Aspartame". See also: Aspartame Disease: An Ignored Epidemic
Elimination of sugar will possibly do as much as, or more than, any other single thing or trial drug to slow progression of the disease, especially those with bulbar symptoms controlling speech, swallowing and breathing. Any kind of white, brown or powdered sugar is toxic to PALS.
Honey and saccharine are also toxic and should be eliminated from diet. Aspartame, a sugar substitute widely used in sodas and many other processed foods, is particularly toxic and should be avoided at all costs.
Sugar is highly addictive, just as nicotine or caffeine. It destroys, inhibits, confuses the functioning of neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) faster than any food or drug substance known by this former PALS. PALS with bulbar symptoms can "pig out" on sugar for one or two days, then observe that speech, swallowing and breathing become worse.
A total fast from sugars, preferably including a fast from refined carbohydrates, will normally result in the recovery of temporarily lost abilities to near the level they were a week before "pigging out". Anyone can easily perform an experiment and prove this to be factual.
The only viable conclusion is that sugars are toxic, detrimental to PALS, and cause the disease to progress at a more rapid rate. Liquid sugar-based supplements often used for PALS on feeding tubes should be replaced with a non-sugar-based high calorie food supplement. Avoid the sugar-based products.
I would like to stress the importance of getting off sugars, kicking the sugar addiction and getting off a substance that has no food or nutritional value and causes tremendous damage to the functioning of the central nervous system. Sugar can also cause those with only lower motor neuron symptoms to acquire bulbar symptoms. Please, if you do not believe this, experiment once and closely observe the results, especially if you have upper motor neuron symptoms.
I could give dozens of examples of PALS who were easily understandable; then, within one week after a doctor put them on high calorie, sugar-based diets in order to "keep up weight and maintain strength and energy," were no longer intelligible. Others "pigged out" on candy and were unable to be understood, could not swallow and had more breathing difficulty for several days after.
This was corrected by a total sugar fast while simultaneously drinking plenty of water to help flush the sugars out of the system. Their temporary "experiment" reversed and qualities of speech/swallowing/breathing and returned them to the levels of a few days earlier.

One explanation as to why processed sugar is so damaging
Sugar (meaning natural sugar) is the principal food for the brain, which is stimulated and fed by natural "complex" and fruit sugars. Sugar is a basic element in starchy food.
Fresh sugar cane contains 14% health giving trace elements, minerals, vitamins and chlorophyll. The sugar we purchase in the supermarket - even most so called "pure" cane sugar - is heated and treated so that calcium and protein are extracted and all vitamins are destroyed. The sugar is then mixed with acid chalk, carbonic gas, sulphur dioxide and finally with natrium bicarbonate.
This mixture is cooked and cooled off several times, crystallized then treated with strontium hydroxide. Subsequently it is passed over chalk carbon acid to clean it. Dark colouring is removed by adding sulphuric acid and then it is filtered with bone charcoal. Finally it is coloured with Indathren blue or toxic ultramarine.
Tooth enamel is the hardest substance in the human body and although teeth have been found undamaged in the earth after 100,000 years white sugar is capable of destroying tooth enamel within hours. This highly refined sugar irritates mucous membranes, tissues, glands, blood vessels and intestinal tract and can also hinder intestinal peristalsis and lead to immune system dysfunction.


Vitamin supplements dramatically improved the conduct of violent prisoners at a maximum security jail in England. The findings were part of a study linking the effects of good nutrition to a person's behaviour.


GLYCONUTRIENTS
Everybody has natural killer cells that identify and kill tumour cells and cells infected with viruses or some type of fungi or bacteria. The body has the genetic capacity to defend itself against viruses and bacterium, to cleanse itself of destructive toxins, to absorb and utilize nutrients for fuel, and to heal itself from damage or disease.
Healthy bodies must have accurate biochemical, direct cell-to-cell communication l to function correctly. All body functions require cellular communication. Cells communicate by using glycoproteins made up of various sugar molecules known as saccharides. Some of the connections for the saccharides are to lipids, forming glycolipids. These chains extend off the surface of every cell and can change thousands of times in a second.
Cells actually touch each other to communicate by reading each other's cell surface messages. Disease and dysfunction occurs when the components necessary for cell-to-cell communication are absent.

Eight specific carbohydrates (saccharides) represent the key to cellular communication as these sugars combine with proteins to create the glycoprotein chemical messengers. Only two of the eight are commonly found in our typical modern diets: glucose and galactose.
The other sugars are Mannose, Fucose, Xylose, N-Acetylglucosamine, N-Acetylgalactosamine, and N-Acetylneuraminic acid. The body has the potential to convert glucose and galactose to the other six through enzyme exchanges but the conversion process requires considerable energy and is susceptible to interference from disease processes, medications and free radicals.
Oxidative damage from free radicals can also cause destruction of existing glycoprotein structures, making it necessary to convert some sugars into others to repair the damage. Living in our current environment, our bodies simply cannot keep up with this conversion/repair process.
Further validation of the essential nature of these carbohydrates can be found in an article about the immune-enhancing benefits of breastfeeding.7 Five of the eight carbohydrates thought to be essential for cell-to-cell communication are ingredients in human breast milk and also in the glyconutrients
Early Research Results with Glyconutrient Supplementation
The potential for supporting our immune systems and enhancing cell-to-cell communication with glyconutrients is profound. Immunologist, Dr. Darryl See has found that natural killer cell activity increases by 50 percent after glyconutritional supplementation in the average healthy person.
With glyconutritional supplementation among chronic fatigue patients who have impaired immune system function, natural killer cell activity has been shown to increase by over 400 percent.8 Scientific studies support the potential health benefits of glyconutritional supplementation for health conditions including fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue, ADHD, diabetes, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and lupus9,10 A study, published in February, 1999 reported a 95% killing activity of the Candida Albicans yeast in incubation with glyconutritional supplementation.11
A six-year study found that out of 196 products tested, garlic, aloe and three glyconutrient formulations were the only supplements that were non-toxic, caused no drug interactions, did not interfere with liver enzyme function and demonstrated natural killer cell enhancement, antioxidant activity and protection against viruses.12
Glyconutritional supplements seem to allow the human body to manifest more of its potential by enhancing cellular communication. These nutrients may be a critical component in supporting the natural function of the immune system that is at risk in our toxic, denatured environment.
1 Nugent S,The Grapevine, American Nutraceutical Association, 1998; 2(8):5.
2 Guillette L, Hamilton Spectator, Ontario, Canada, February 2, 1998.
3 Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, March 1998.
4 See DM, Khemka P, Sahl L, Bui T, Tilles JG. The Role of Natural Killer Cells in Viral Infections. Scand J Immunol 1997;46:217-224.
5 Murray et al, Harper's Biochemistry, 24th edition, 1996; 648-666.
6 Hodgson J, Capitalizing on Carbohydrates, Bio/Technology, 1990; 8: 108-111.
7 Hanson L, Breastfeeding Stimulates the Infant Immune System, Science & Medicine, 1997; 4:2-11
8 See DM, Cimoch P, Chous S, Chang J, Tilles J, The In Vitro Immunomodulatory Effects of Glyconutrients on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Integr Physiol Behav Sci 1998 Jul-Sep;33(3); 280-7.
9,10 Proceedings of the Fisher Institute for Medical Research, November 1997;1; Integr Physiol Behav Sci , January- Marych 1998; 49-71.
11 Lefkowitz SS, Lefkowitz DL, Macrophage Candidicidal Activity of a Complete Glyconutritional Formulation versus Aloe Polymannose, Proceedings of the Fisher Institute for Medical Research, 1999; 1:5-7.
12 See DM, Gurnee K, LeClaire M, An In Vitro Screening Study of 196 Natural Products for Toxicity and Efficacy, The Journal of the American Nutraceutical Association, Winter 1999; 2:25-41.

Danger in Overcooking Meat
Overcooking beef, pork, poultry and even fish releases HCA (Heterocyclic Amines) called MeIQ and PhiP which are not present in meat but are produced when proteins, amino acids and creatine are cooked at high temperatures. HCAs are carcinogens (cancer causing) chemicals and are as potentially dangerous as cigarette smoking, asbestos and arsenic and may adversely effect general health.
It has been suggested that meat should be cooked at lower temperatures, taking care not to undercook it. It is better to slice meat thinly and grill to limit exposure to heat. Oven roasting and baking at lower temperatures also reduced HCAs. Microwaving meat a minute or two before grilling may also help. An increase in cooking temperature from 200 degrees C to 250C tripled the production of the harmful chemicals. Charred, overcooked meat should be avoided.
Other sources of dietary protein such as milk, eggs, tofu and organ meats like liver do not have HCAs.

Research conducted by Jim Felton, Head of Structural and molecular biology at 
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA.

Contributed by Dr Gayle Eversol: 
Excess CHON, especially that from animal protein, can be difficult for the body to excrete properly.  This  causes an "excess acid load" which leads to overtaxing the liver, sick kidneys (mainly renal tubule failure and other decreased kidney function), decreased muscle mass, decreased hormonal function, osteoporosis, and premature aging.
It is also important to note that very low fat diets can cause a build up of toxins in the organs, and additional stressors to organ function. Balance is the key! Fruits and vegetables for CO3 (carbonate) provides alkalinity and reduces to CO2 and H2O.

Soil Based Organisms
Soil Based Organisms (SBO's) are beneficial bacterial micro-orginisms populating the gastrointestinal tract. These microbes are ingested when fresh raw fruits and vegetables are eaten and are needed by but not native to the human Gastro Intestinal (GI) tract.
Modern agricultural techniques (including the application of pesticides, fungicides and germicidal agents) and heat-based food processing tend to kill SBO's. Consequently, ingestion of SBO's and their beneficial enzymes, hormones and nutrient by-products has decreased.
When SBO's colonize the digestive tract, they produce proteins that act as antigens. These antigens stimulate the production of antibodies, which may amplify the immune system's ability to prevent or fight existing disease. SBO's also work to completely break down foods into their basic elements. This allows better absorption and appropriate elimination of all foods.
Faulty digestion and elimination develop through years of improper dietary and lifestyle habits. Improper waste elimination allows the bowel walls to become encrusted with fecal matter, which hampers the absorption of vital nutrients. A breeding ground for unhealthy bacteria develops and eventually toxins, via capillaries lining the bowel wall, pollute the bloodstream, cells and organs. Pathogenic organisms thrive in this environment and diseases can proliferate.
Many nutritional researchers believe that 90% of systemic diseases may be caused or exacerbated by GI imbalances. Normally, the GI tract bacteria balance is 85% good to 15% bad bacteria.
The lifestyle and diets of highly processed foods in Western, industrialized nations contribute to GI disruption. Stress, consumption of alcoholic and carbonated beverages, processed sugar, over-the-counter drugs and excessive use of antibiotics adversely alter the acid/alkaline balance of the GI tract. Recolonising the GI tract with SBO's may help correct this.

WATER 
If ALS/MND is triggered by excessive free radical activity or toxic substances in the body it is essential that you drink sufficient water to aid the liver and kidneys to "flush" these from your body.
Tea, coffee and alcohol act as diuretics and can promote dehydration if used in excess. Fruit juices can assist with hydration but plain water is even better. You should drink a minimum of ten 15fl oz/400ml glasses of water per day in addition to other fluids.
Some doctors and naturopaths recommend an even higher water intake based on body weight (it is medically accepted that 2.5 litres of fluid per day is the recommended minimum intake for adequate metabolic function) but exact therapeutic recommendations vary.
Bear in mind that exercising on a hot day, one can sweat out half a gallon/approx 2 litres of water in half an hour!
Some tips on drinking water:
* Drink from a glass or cup, not a bottle.
* Breathe in, hold your breath then swallow. You will find it easier and more comfortable to consume more water this way.
* Drink water at room temperature rather than iced or chilled. It is difficult to quickly consume a full glass of very cold water.
* If you find it difficult to drink a full glass of water drink smaller amounts but do so frequently.
* Drink before you feel thirsty if possible.
* Do not ignore your thirst.
* n.b. Some PALS suggest that using a container with a large drinking straw is easier than manipulating a cup or glass.
Drink tea/coffee, carbonated soft drinks, milk and particularly alcohol as occasional "treats" rather than as your primary fluid sources. Numerous studies, particularly in the field of sports medicine, stress the importance of adequate fluid intake and suggest plain water is best. If, as I suspect, liver function is implicated in the rate at which ALS/MND progresses the more plain water you drink the easier it will be for your liver and kidneys to function adequately.
I now drink a minimum of ten glasses (approx 4 litres/9 pints) of water daily and my consumption (and any craving) for other fluids is minimal. I had a history of drinking both tea and coffee to excess and these were once my primary sources of fluid each day.
I do not crave tea or coffee now but do not deprive myself of either if I feel like drinking them. 4 litres/9 pints may sound like a lot of water and I admit that I struggled to drink this amount for the first four days. Now it feels perfectly normal and I comfortably drink even more on hot (sweaty) days. 
A frequent need to urinate was a problem for the first week or so but this has now settled to what I would consider "normal" for me.
There is a book on the benefits of hydration called "Your Body's Many Cries for Water" by Dr. F. Batmanghelidj, a London educated Iranian doctor. I have sighted a favourable review in Borderlands - A Quarterly Journal of Borderland Research Vol LIII, Number 1, First Quarter 1997.

Interesting Statistics About Water
Our bodies contain and average of 40 litres/9.5 gallons of water - Blood = 92% water, Muscle = 80% water, Overall bodyweight is 60%water.* 75% of
Americans are believed to be chronically dehydrated. This probably  applies to much of the world's population.
In 37% of Americans, the thirst mechanism is  so weak that it is often mistaken for hunger.
Even mild dehydration will slow one's metabolism as much as 3%.
One glass of water relieved midnight hunger pangs for almost all dieters studied in a U-Washington study.
Lack of water is the number 1 trigger of daytime fatigue.
Preliminary research indicates that 8-10 glasses of water a day could ease back and joint pain for up to 80% of sufferers.
Drinking 5 glasses of water daily decreases the risk of colon cancer by 45%.
Drinking 5 glasses of water daily can reduce the risk of breast cancer by 79%.
Drinking 5 glasses of water daily can reduce the risk of developing bladder cancer by 50%.
A mere 2% drop in body water can trigger fuzzy short-term memory, cause trouble with basic math and difficulty focusing on the computer screen or  on a printed page.
Are you drinking the amount of water you need every day?

Nutrition and Dietary Recommendations for ALS
ALSA looks to medical and nutrition experts in the ALS community for the current clinical practice and recommendations. The ALSA publication, Maintaining Good Nutrition with ALS, is available free-of-charge and provides information about diet and ALS. It is available by calling ALSAs toll-free number at (800) 782-4747 or it can be ordered through ALSA's website

Nutritional issues and supplements in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurodegenerative disorders.
Source: Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2002 Nov; 5(6):631-43 Author(s): Cameron A, Rosenfeld J. Published: 11/1/2002

Aggressive nutritional intervention has become a cornerstone of treatment for many patients with neuromuscular diseases, in particular, Motor Neuron Disease (ALS). Malnutrition is a common problem among patients with ALS.
Over the past decade, the recognition of nutrition as an independent, prognostic factor for survival and disease complications in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis has illustrated the importance of individualized nutritional management in symptomatic treatment.
Paramount issues for nutritional management in ALS include caloric supplementation, the diagnosis/treatment of dysphagia, and the timing/safety/efficacy of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy placement.
Many PALS self-medicate with a variety of vitamins, herbs, and other dietary supplements. Outcome-based research for the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods in the treatment and prevention of ALS and other neuromuscular diseases is in its early stages. In the past year, however, several interesting papers have been published that lend support to the use of dietary supplements as primary treatments for ALS and other motor neuron disorders.
Common or overlapping aetiologies in disparate neurodegenerative diseases have led to the promise that optimal nutritional care and the appropriate use of dietary supplements in ALS will have implications for the nutritional management of other degenerative conditions such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease. Furthermore, evidence supporting the efficacy of dietary supplements in ALS may lend clues to the treatment of other neuromuscular disorders such as the muscular dystrophies.

A review of specific dietary antioxidants and the effects on biochemical mechanisms related to neurodegenerative processes.
Source : Neurobiol Aging 2002 Sep;23(5):719 Author(s): Esposito E, Rotilio D, Di Matteo V, Di Giulio C, Cacchio M,: Algeri S.Institute: Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri", Consorzio: Mario Negri Sud, 66030 Santa Maria Imbaro, Chieti, Italy Published: 9/01/2002
Abstract: Aging is a major risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases including ALS. An unbalanced overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may give rise to oxidative stress which can induce neuronal damage, ultimately leading to neuronal death by apoptosis or necrosis. A large body of evidence indicates that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of AD, PD, and ALS.
An increasing number of studies show that nutritional antioxidants (especially Vitamin E and polyphenols) can block neuronal death in vitro, and may have therapeutic properties in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases including ALS. Moreover, clinical data suggest that nutritional antioxidants might exert some protective effect against ALS.
In this paper, the biochemical mechanisms by which nutritional antioxidants can reduce or block neuronal death occurring in neurodegenerative disorders are reviewed.
Particular emphasis will be given to the role played by the nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in apoptosis, and in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as ALS. The effects of ROS and antioxidants on NF-kappaB function and their relevance in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases will also be examined.

Long Term Nutritional Deficiencies
National nutritional recommendations and policies are based primarily on preventing short-latency or short-term deficiency disease. Examples of short-term nutritional disease include vitamin C deficiency and scurvy, niacin deficiency and beriberi, iodine deficiency and goiter, and vitamin D deficiency and rickets.
Long-term, inadequate intake of many nutrients lead to several major chronic diseases in industrialized nations and may take years to manifest. Nutritional requirements necessary to prevent these chronic illnesses are higher than the requirements necessary to prevent the effects of short-term deficiency conditions. Recommendations based solely on preventing the index diseases are no longer biologically defensible.
Heaney, R.P. Long-Latency deficiency disease: insights from calcium and vitamin D. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 78, 2003

The Ketogenic Diet and Metabolic Types
The ketogenic diet, or high fat diet has been used for controlling epilepsy in children since the 1920's. The diet has long been considered an alternative therapy but now is considered an accepted form of treatment in epileptic children and adults that have a fast metabolism.
Cellular glycolytic activity is elevated with sympathetic dominance and contributes to more than adequate amounts of pyruvic acid production but there is an inadequate ability to convert the pyruvate into energy in the TCA cycle of energy production due to a lack of acetyl coenzyme A. Fats and ketones are sources of this enzyme.
The ketogenic diet is based upon a ratio of fat to proteins and carbohydrates of 4:1. When this ratio of food intake is maintained it will result in the formation of ketones. Ketone bodies are used as a major fuel source for brain cells. Ketones increase the energy reserves in neurological cells by affecting the ATP/ADP enzyme ratio in the mitochondria contributing to an antiseizure effect.
Since ketones raise the acetyl-coenzyme A production by 16 times the TCA energy production is greatly enhanced. Ketones may also protect neurons from free-radical damage. VanItallie, et al concludes that conditions such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease may respond favorably to a ketogenic diet. Other conditions seen with a Fast Metabolic HTMA mineral pattern and that also have responded favorably to a high fat die include;
ALS/MND, Parkinson's Disease, Multiple Sclerosis, Type I Huntington's Disease, Diabetes Type I, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Neuropsychological Disorders, Myesthenia Gravis, Mitochondrial disorders. All of which appear to have aetiological similarities to ALS/MND when one looks at the "bigger picture" - See My Theory. 
Wilder, RM. The Effect of Ketonemia On The Course Of Epilepsy. Mayo Clin.Bul. 1921.
Peterman, MG. The Ketogenic Diet In The Treatment of Epilepsy. Am.J.Dis.Child. 1924.
VanItallie, TB, Nufert, TH. Ketones: Metabolism's Ugly Duckling. Nutr. Rev. 61, 10 2003.

Butter V's Margarine
Both have the same amount of calories although butter is slightly higher in saturated fats at 8 grams compared to 5 grams.
Eating margarine can increase heart disease in women by 53% more than eating the same amount of butter.
Eating butter may increase the absorption of nutrients in other foods.
Butter has natural nutritional benefits but margarine has only the few that are added.
Butter has been used for centuries and margarine for less than 100 years.
Margarine decreases immune response; decreases insulin response; is high in trans fatty acids; can triple risk of coronary heart disease; increases total cholesterol and LDL (bad cholesterol); lowers HDL (good cholesterol); may increase the risk of cancers five fold.
Margarine is essentially one molecule away from being plastic. It is believed that any food that is hydrogenated (hydrogen is added to the molecular structure of margarine) could potentially cause ill health.
NB “Margarine” is now called a “spread” of some kind and the word “Margarine” is completely omitted. Some forms made primarily from Canola Oil have been shown to lower cholesterol and are high in Omega 3 and so on. These spreads should still be used with caution.

Toxic Chemicals in Foods
Avoid eating "diet" and "low calorie" foods that contain artificial sweeteners There is ever increasing evidence that aspartame (also called Nutrasweet, etc. ) and other artificial sweeteners, even those claiming to be derived from "natural sugars" (Sucralose, etc.) are toxic and harmful to many bodily organs and functions.
Even candies/sweets recommended for diabetics contain these substances. Many of these sweeteners in diet sodas and "low calorie" diet foods are particularly damaging to the brain and nervous system.
There are a number of articles and a cogent body of research regarding artificial sweeteners. See the paper by Dr. Russell Blaylock "What To Do If You Have Used Aspartame".
See also: Aspartame Disease: An Ignored Epidemic

Rudy's Fabulous Thick Soup
(nutritious and easier to swallow)
Contributed by Rudolf Nissen
1 gallon/4ltrs water
1 container of T.J's vegetable broth (or equivalent)
2 cups of salmon broth
1 dozen Jerusalem artichokes (Sunchokes), cut up, but not peeled
2 large sweet potatoes, peeled and cut up
1 large red onion, sliced
5 large leaves of kale
1/4 cup dried parsley
3 mild chili peppers, remove seeds and cut up
5 carrots, scrub and cut up, do not peel
1 red bell pepper, seed and cut up
1/2 cup of seaweed
1 cup lentils
1 cup barley (not pearl barley)
1 can white or pinto beans
Cook (simmer) all in large pot for one hour then add: 3 packets of Tofu & 1 can Corn. Puree it all in the Blender.

FASTING
This is included for your information only.
Although not appropriate for most PALS, it has been widely researched and confirmed that fasting can kick start the immune system and promote the growth of new stem cells by destroying unhealthy white blood cells and creating replacements, thereby significantly boosting the immune system. This is particularly beneficial for cancer patients being treated with chemo and radiation therapy.
The (hematopoietic) regeneration of stem cells and improved immune system could be helpful in slowing the progress of neurodegeneration (although little specific research has been done in this area).
Newly diagnosed, obese or overweight PALS may be able to incorporate this in the early stages of their illness. 
The outcome of this research is to produce a chemical that mimics fasting to provide the benefits without actually stopping eating.  In PALS find it difficult to eat there is some hope offered in knowing that your immune system and stem cell production are creating a renewed immune system.

On a Much Lighter Note 
If the subject of Diet is complex and confusing, consider this:

The Japanese eat very little fat and suffer fewer heart attacks than the British or Americans.
The French eat a lot of fat and also suffer fewer heart attacks than the British or Americans.
The Italians drink large amounts of red wine and also suffer fewer heart attacks than the British or Americans.
The Chinese drink very little red wine and suffer fewer heart attacks than the British or Americans.
The Germans drink a lot of beer and eat lots of sausages and fats and suffer fewer heart attacks than the British or Americans.

CONCLUSION: Eat and drink what you like...
Apparently, speaking English is what kills you!

Alphabetical Contents List
| Introduction | Acknowledgements | Antioxidants | 
| Antioxidant Articles |  Articles | Diagnosing ALS | Diet | F A Q | 
| Healthy Foods | Inspiration | Liver Function | Lyme Disease | 
| Medications | Mental Attitude | Minerals & Aminos | My Advice | 
| Mycoplasma | My Diagnosis | My Opinion | My Regimen | My Story | 
| My Study | My Theory | OPCs | Organophosphates | Self Assessment | 
| Self Healing | Stress | Talking to Doctors | Theories | Therapies |
| Treatments | Steven Shackel | Useful Links | Vitamins |
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